Namibia Elections and Conflict Management

by Kemi Ogunsanya

Occasional Paper Series: Issue 2, 2004

In November 2004, Namibia conducted its third generation of elections at the presidential, parliamentary and regional levels, since it became independent from apartheid South Africa in 1990. After fourteen years of independence, Namibia has established tolerance for opposition politics. The South West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO) led by President Sam Nujoma remains the dominant party, although there exist political tensions between SWAPO and the main opposition party, Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA). The overwhelming victory of the ruling party in the presidential and parliamentary elections, amidst calls by opposition parties for a recount of votes cast, marked the end of Sam Nujoma’s 14 years Presidency since independence. Mr. Hifikepunye Pohamba, the former Minster of Land Affairs and Resettlement, succeeded President Sam Nujoma following his inauguration on March 21, 2005.

Is Botswana Advancing or Regressing in its Democracy?

by Themba Michael Sokhulu

Occasional Paper Series: Issue 1, 2004

There is wide consensus among academics and political analysts that Botswana has been hailed as one of the “old democracies” in Africa, but that there have been reports of political wrangling in the country. Landsberg maintains that the southern African region, of which Botswana is part, is relatively more democratic when compared with the rest of the continent. It is exactly thirty-eight years into Botswana’s democracy and although Botswana has a relative enabling constitutional and legislative framework, there are signs of isolated infringements upon the constitution by the ruling party.

Developing the Mediation and Post-conflict Reconstruction and Development Pools of the African Union Peace and Security Department Civilian Standby Roster

The African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD), together with the African Union (AU) Peace and Security Department (PSD), held the African Union Mediation and Post-conflict Reconstruction Staffing, Rostering and Training Workshop in Durban, South Africa on 14–15 April 2011. The workshop brought together the AU, Regional Economic Communities (RECs), policymakers, mediation and post- conflict reconstruction experts, and civil society actors to inform the development of, and assist, the AU in identifying and articulating clear and specific needs of the mediation and post-conflict reconstruction and development (PCRD) pools of the PSD Civilian Standby Roster.

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The Conflict Management Work of the Civil Affairs Division of UNMIS

Since the establishment of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) in 2005, the Civil Affairs Division (CAD) has gained considerable field experience with local-level conflict management in the complex conflict environment in Southern Sudan and the Three Areas. In this context, CAD commissioned in 2010 an assessment of its conflict management experience, including developing recommendations for CAD’s future conflict management work, in a post-referendum mission.

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PoC Workshop Report

Conference Proceedings from the Workshop on Mission-Wide Protection Strategies on the Protection of Civilians in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, held from 31 May–1 June 2010, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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AU African Standby Force Technical Rostering Workshop Report

The African Union (AU) African Standby Force (ASF) Technical Rostering Workshop draft report recommends the ASF civilian dimension roster model (an AU – RECs/RMs Integrated Roster Model) taking into consideration, the present capacity of the AU and RECs/RMs and the type of peace operations the ASF will implement. It prescribes the guidelines, principles, and time frames for the implementation the processes for the establishment and management of the roster.

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Bottlenecks to Deployment?

The Challenges of Deploying Trained Personnel to United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

This report addresses the role of training programmes with respect to the deployment of personnel in peace operations. It assessed the effectiveness of the deployment of trained personnel as well as the main obstacles to deployment. The Norwegian-funded Training for Peace in Africa (TfP) was used as a case to explore the bottlenecks that hamper the recruitment and deployment of trained personnel, especially civilians, to peace operations in the African context. The study is exploratory in character and the conclusions are tentative in nature, as they are based on limited empirical data.

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Policy Framework for the Civilian Dimension of the African Standby Force

The Civilian Dimension Policy Framework clarifies the policy context, the multidimensional management structure and decision-making process, the main civilian roles and responsibilities, the mission support functions as well as the main police roles and responsibilities that need to be in place to support the civilian and police dimensions of peace operations.

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ASF Civilian Dimension Implementation Plan

ASF Civilian Dimension Implementation Plan was developed out of the Civilian Dimension Policy Framework as a detailed map of the processes for the development and operationalisation of the civilian dimension of the ASF. It centres on eight (8) lines of action to be taken in order to initiate the ASF Civilian Dimension. These include (1) Integrated Mission Policies, (2) Human Resources Policies, (3) Gender Policy, (4) HIV/AIDS Policy, (5) Conduct and Discipline, (6) Training, (7) Capacity Building, (8) Raising Awareness of the Civilian Dimension of the ASF.

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