Preventing and Punishing Sexual Violence

The Work of the International Conference of the Great Lakes Region

Policy & Practice Brief 17

Efforts to build lasting peace at regional level involve multiple strata of actors, institutions and processes. Regional organisations that are in search of shared peace and security must take cognisance of the various layers of political and social history of many sovereign states. These bodies must accommodate different economies, legal systems and security capacities, cultures and conflicting interests. Challenges such as these are particuraly acute for new regional institutions, especially when they ambitiously set out to solve newly-defined problems. Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is an example of this new terrain.

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Responsibility to Protect

Why Libya and not Syria?

Policy & Practice Brief 16

While the intervention in Libya saved relatively many lives, there is hesitation to intervene in Syria due to geopolitics, despite the threshold for intervention having been reached. However, by endorsing the notion of responsibility to protect, UN Member States, including the Security Council, agreed to act collectively to save humanity from atrocities. Therefore, the international community should support the Arab League to constructively engage the warring factions to find a peaceful solution to the crisis and persuade them to avoid committing atrocities against civilians. The Syrian government should uphold its primary responsibility to protect its population and the belligerents should provide access for humanitarian assistance; those at fault should be held accountable by the international criminal court.

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Sexual Violence Beyond Conflict Termination

Impunity for Past Violations as a Recipe for New Ones?

Policy & Practice Brief 15

Based on a pilot study of seven African countries – Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Liberia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and South Africa – this Policy & Practice Brief presents insights on amnesty regimes and conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) beyond conflict termination. It shows that CRSV often continues past conflict termination and that most of the conflicts under study negotiated amnesties. Yet, this finding is not enough to confer that impunity leads to continued CRSV. The combination of amnesties and continued CRSV raises important questions about how to address sexual violence in post-conflict situations and build durable peace.

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Climate change and conflict

Conflict-sensitive climate change adaptation in Africa

Policy & Practice Brief 14

In preparation for COP17 (17 th Conference of the Parties) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD) in Durban,held a two-day expert seminar to identify issues and recommendations for ensuring that adaptation to climate change is conflict- sensitive. Practitioners and scientists presented new research on the linkages between climate change and conflict in Africa, and analysed various tools, policies and approaches to ensure that conflicts arising from climate change are addressed and climate change adaptation measures are conflict-sensitive.

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Managing Election-related Violence

Elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Policy & Practice Brief 13

Approximately 25 presidential, legislative and local elections are planned in Africa for 2011. The African Union (AU) has identified the forthcoming elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as ones that require special attention. This is because many parts of the country – including the Kivus, Bas-Congo, and Equateur Province – continue to experience violent conflicts. This environment sets the context for the upcoming multi- party elections scheduled for 28 November 2011...

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The Abunzi Mediation in Rwanda

Opportunities for Engaging with Traditional Institutions of Conflict Resolution

Policy & Practice Brief 12

This Policy & Practice Brief analyses the role of traditional institutions for conflict resolution, paying special attention to their relevance in post-conflict societies. Using Rwanda’s abunzi mediation system as an example, the brief considers traditional African mechanisms for conflict resolution as unique, context- specific, and responsive to the justice needs of societies emerging from conflict. The brief draws attention to synergies between the modern and the traditional by highlighting how traditional institutions have sometimes complemented the state, which is often too overwhelmed and under-resourced to be able to offer timely and effective justice...

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The New Sudans: The First 100 Days

Policy & Practice Brief 11

This Policy & Practice Brief focuses on the challenges facing the two Sudans post separation. 17 October marks 100 days since the fracturing of the Sudan. It is, therefore, an opportune moment for reflection on the state of affairs as the two states move into uncertain futures. The date also offers a chance to assess the trajectories of the two countries as they chart separate, but linked destinies...

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Peace Implementation in the Post-2005 Era

Lessons from Four Peace Agreements in Africa

Policy & Practice Brief 10

This Policy & Practice Brief focuses on four peace agreements [...] These particular peace agreements ended serious levels of violence and ushered in conditions that could facilitate peace and democracy in the respective countries. Nonetheless, there have been mixed levels of success, especially regarding their implementation. This brief is written against the background of scholarly and practitioner interest in what makes peace agreements succeed or fail, and it undertakes a systematic analysis of purposely selected peace agreements in Africa, to make recommendations for effective peace implementation.

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Training to Protect Civilians

Recent Developments and Recommendations

Policy and Practice Brief 9

Protection of Civilians has become one of the most important aspects of the mandates of peacekeeping operations. More recently, both the United Nations and the African Union have been engaged in strengthening their roles in addressing protection needs on the ground... This Policy & Practice Brief reviews recent policy developments in the field of PoC in peacekeeping operations, with a particular focus on training. By reviewing these developments, this paper aims to present recommendations for peacekeeping training centres that are considering developing and conducting training courses on PoC.

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Making Deals for Peace

The Peace and Justice Dilemma

Policy and Practice Brief 8

Conflict mediators must constantly balance issues of peace and justice when designing peace agreements. This paper probes how peace and justice, two distinct but interrelated concepts, interact within the African peacebuilding context. Examining the different manifestations of peace and justice in post-conflict environments provides policymakers and stakeholders alike with frameworks for future peace agreements.

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