Conflict and post-conflict environments in Africa present unique challenges and opportunities for women. While violence and war periods have negative effects on women, it is suggested that “peace time” has implications for women as well. For most women, the end of war and conflict is marked by the excessive effects of trauma and shame. There are still numerous accounts of rape and forced marriages that undermine the social position of these women in society. Due to these circumstances, many women struggle to participate effectively in the affairs of their societies. The lack of skills or education among many of these women means that their access to economic opportunities is greatly challenged. It is critical that the implications of conflict on these women be clearly understood. Furthermore, the post-conflict environment must also be interrogated, as there are concerning social, psychological, physical and economic implications that continue to challenge women.