This Issue of Conflict Trends examines the 2021 “Free Zuma” protests and unrest in South Africa and evaluates the underlying political, social, economic and legal issues. Similarly, in Mozambique, any long-term solution for the conflict in Cabo Delgado, must address the significant problem of limited statehood and good governance. In the West Africa region the activities of violent extremist groups in Ghana’s immediate neighbouring countries requires proactive, preventive responses to terrorism in the country. In addition, sustaining peace in the West Africa region requires multi-level partnerships that engage and foster robust relationships among critical actors at key levels. In Baragoi, Kenya the processual analysis of conflict explains the progression from cattle raids to violence and demonstrates how conflicts become enlarged and escalate. Finally, understanding how climate-related security risks undermine peace and increase levels of violence by affecting the drivers of conflict provides further insight into the challenges experienced in Somalia, South Sudan and Mali.