The recent spate of coups witnessed on the continent has triggered a number of questions including whether we are witnessing a return of coups, what explains the coups and what to make of their apparent popular support.
Africa has experienced six military coups and two attempted coups. These events represent a sharp rise in such contested political transitions over the previous 10-year period and indicates the possibility of further instability on the continent.
The situation in South Africa is a microcosm of what is prevailing in the rest of Africa. The marginalised majority have continued, over these three decades, to live in hope.
The goal of Silencing the Guns (STG) was to achieve a conflict-free Africa and rid the continent of all wars and conflicts. Conflicts have persisted, resulting in the STG agenda being extended to 2030, in the hope that by then Africa will have cured itself of the plague of conflict.
Restructuring how Sudan is governed is essential to placing Sudan on the right course towards sustained democracy, especially given the military’s restructuring process that has been in play for over 50 years.
Eastern Africa has two primary terrorism hotspots. The first is Somalia. It has experienced continuous instability since 1991, due to clan-based warlords and the lack of a functioning central government. Secondly, similar to Somalia, the eastern part of the DRC has been a hotspot since its own civil war from 1997 to 2003.
Since October 2017, an insurgency emerged in Mozambique’s northernmost province of Cabo Delgado, resulting in numerous terrorist attacks, claiming nearly 3,000 lives, and displacing some 800,000 people since 2020. In addition to the current military reprisals, a more comprehensive approach should recognise both the fact that the insurgents are the “sons of Mocímboa da Praia” and that at a certain point in time, they became radicalised and turned towards violent extremism.
A key factor in promoting effective PCRD relates to coordination and coherence. Effective PCRD also requires coherence and coordination in the deployment of efforts in post-conflict areas. Effective PCRD also requires a consideration of the root causes of conflict. The centrality of PCRD as a means for sustainable peace cannot be underestimated.
The outbreak of COVID-19 has not only exposed the vulnerabilities of many countries, but has in some cases exacerbated existing fault lines yielding conflictual outcomes that might take many years to address.
ISWAP, noticing the vacuum created by the death of Shekau, seized the opportunity to move in and present itself as the most prominent violent extremist group in the region, and has deepened its relationship with the Islamic State (IS), thus making itself a global threat and expanding the network and reach of such groups.